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Guardians Ad Litem*
The articles below, excerpted from the ABA and state sites presenting standards for GALs in FLORIDA, MISSOURI, NEW HAMPSHIRE (incomplete), OHIO, and UTAH, are presented for public discussion and education without expectation of payment or other financial gain.

On 2O March 2001,  the MASSACHUSETTS Senate Post Audit
and Oversight Committee released its report,
which outlined  problems

within the Guardian Ad Litem (GAL) system.



American Bar Association
Standards of Practice For Lawyers
Representing a Child in Abuse and Neglect Cases


I-1. Judicial Involvement in Lawyer Training

Trial judges who are regularly involved in child-related matters should participate in training for the child's attorney conducted by the courts, the bar, or any other group.


Juvenile Justice Standards 2.1 indicates that it is the responsibility of the courts (among others) to ensure that competent counsel are available to represent children before the courts. That Standard further suggests that lawyers should "be encouraged" to qualify themselves for participation in child-related cases "through formal training." The Abuse and Neglect Standards go further by suggesting that judges should personally take part in educational programs, whether or not the court conducts them. The National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges has suggested that courts can play in important role in training lawyers in child abuse and neglect cases, and that judges and judicial officers can volunteer to provide training and publications for continuing legal education seminars. See, Resource Guidelines, at 22.

I-2. Content of Lawyer Training

The appropriate state administrative office of the trial [alternatively, juvenile/family] courts should provide educational programs, live or on tape, on the role of a child's attorney. At a minimum, the requisite training should include:

1. Information about relevant federal and state laws and agency regulations;

2. Information about relevant court decisions and court rules;

3.  Overview of the court process and key personnel in child-related litigation;

4.  Description of applicable guidelines and standards for representation;

5.  Focus on the child development needs and abilities;

6.  Information on the multidisciplinary input required in child-related cases, including information on local experts who can provide consultation and testimony on the reasonableness and appropriateness of efforts made to safely maintain the child in his or her home;

7.  Information concerning family dynamics and dysfunction including substance abuse, and the use of kinship care;

8. Information on accessible child welfare, family preservation, medical, educational, and mental health resources for child clients and their families, including placement, evaluation/diagnostic, and treatment services; the structure of agencies providing such services as well as provisions and constraints related to agency payment for services; and

9.  Provision of written material (e.g., representation manuals, checklists, sample forms), including listings of useful material available from other sources.


The Abuse and Neglect Standards take the position that it is not enough that judges mandate the training of lawyers, or that judges participate in such training. Rather, they call upon the courts to play a key role in training by actually sponsoring (e.g., funding) training opportunities. The pivotal nature of the judiciary's role in educating lawyers means that courts may, on appropriate occasions, stop the hearing of cases on days when training is held so that both lawyers and judges may freely attend without docket conflicts. The required elements of training are based on a review of well-regarded lawyer training offered throughout the country, Resource Guidelines, and many existing manuals that help guide lawyers in representing children.

I-3. Continuing Training for Lawyers

The court system should also assure that there are periodic opportunities for lawyers who have taken the "basic" training to receive continuing and "new developments" training.


Many courts and judicial organizations recognize that rapid changes occur because of new federal and state legislation, appellate court decisions, systemic reforms, and responses to professional literature. Continuing education opportunities are critical to maintain a high level of performance. These Standards call for courts to afford these "advanced" or "periodic" training to lawyers who represent children in abuse and neglect related cases.

I-4. Provision of Mentorship Opportunities

Courts should provide individual court-appointed lawyers who are new to child representation the opportunity to practice under the guidance of a senior lawyer mentor.


In addition to training, particularly for lawyers who work as sole practitioners or in firms that do not specialize in child representation, courts can provide a useful mechanism to help educate new lawyers for children by pairing them with more experienced advocates. One specific thing courts can do is to provide lawyers new to representing children with the opportunity to be assisted by more experienced lawyers in their jurisdiction. Some courts actually require lawyers to "second chair" cases before taking an appointment to a child abuse or neglect case. See, Resource Guidelines, at 22.



A-1. The Child's Attorney

The term "child's attorney" means a lawyer who provides legal services for a child and who owes the same duties of undivided loyalty, confidentiality, and competent representation to the child as is due an adult client.


These Standards explicitly recognize that the child is a separate individual with potentially discrete and independent views. To ensure that the child's independent voice is heard, the child's attorney must advocate the child's articulated position. Consequently, the child's attorney owes traditional duties to the child as client consistent with ER 1.14(a) of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct. In all but the exceptional case, such as with a preverbal child, the child's attorney will maintain this traditional relationship with the child/client. As with any client, the child's attorney may counsel against the pursuit of a particular position sought by the child. The child's attorney should recognize that the child may be more susceptible to intimidation and manipulation than some adult clients. Therefore, the child's attorney should ensure that the decision the child ultimately makes reflects his or her actual position.

A-2. Lawyer Appointed as Guardian Ad Litem

A lawyer appointed as "guardian ad litem" for a child is an officer of the court appointed to protect the child's interests without being bound by the child's expressed preferences.


In some jurisdictions the lawyer may be appointed as guardian ad litem. These Standards, however, express a clear preference for the appointment as the "child's attorney." These Standards address the lawyer's obligations to the child as client and not the lawyer's obligation to the child as guardian ad litem.

A lawyer appointed as guardian ad litem is almost inevitably expected to perform legal functions on behalf of the child. Where the local law permits, the lawyer is expected to act in the dual role of guardian ad litem and lawyer of record. The chief distinguishing factor between the roles is the manner and method to be followed in determining the legal position to be advocated. While a guardian ad litem should take the child's point of view into account, the child's preferences are not binding, irrespective of the child's age and the ability or willingness of the child to express preferences. Moreover, in many states, a guardian ad litem may be required by statute or custom to perform specific tasks, such as submitting a report or testifying as a fact or expert witness. These tasks are not part of functioning as a "lawyer."

These Standards do not apply to nonlawyers when such persons are appointed as guardians ad litem or as "court appointed special advocates" (CASA). The nonlawyer guardian ad litem cannot and should not be expected to perform any legal functions on behalf of a child.

A-3. Developmentally Appropriate

"Developmentally appropriate" means that the child's attorney should ensure the child's ability to provide client-based directions by structuring all communications to account for the individual child's age, level of education, cultural context, and degree of language acquisition.


The lawyer has an obligation to explain clearly, precisely, and in terms the client can understand the meaning and consequences of action. See David A. Binder & Susan C. Price, Legal Interviewing and Counseling: A Client-Centered Approach (1977). A child client may not understand the legal terminology and for a variety of reasons may choose a particular course of action without fully appreciating the implications. With a child the potential for not understanding may be even greater. Therefore, the child's attorney has additional obligations based on the child's age, level of education, and degree of language acquisition. There is also the possibility that because of a particular child's developmental limitations, the lawyer may not completely understand the child's responses. Therefore, the child's attorney must learn how to ask developmentally appropriate questions and how to interpret the child's responses. See Anne Graffam Walker, Handbook on Questioning Children: A Linguistic Perspective (ABA Center on Children and the Law 1994). The child's attorney may work with social workers or other professionals to assess a child's developmental abilities and to facilitate communication.